Official English Name: Republic of India
Official Local Name(s): भारत गणराज्य
Note: 21 other official local names exist; Hindi is considered a national language
Common English Name: India
Capital: New Delhi

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Official Language(s)

English, Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Sanskrit
Secondary Languages: Maithili, Konkani, Tulu


Coal, Iron ore, Manganese, Mica, Bauxite, Rare earth elements, Titanium ore, Chromite, Natural gas, Diamonds, Petroleum, Limestone, Arable land


Pakistan (Northwest), China (Northeast), Nepal (North), Bhutan (North), Myanmar (East), Bangladesh (South)

Ethnic groups

Indo-Aryan (72%), Dravidian (25%), Mongoloid/Other (3%)


Est. Population:





Hindu (79.8%)
Muslim (14.2%)
Christian (2.3%)
Other/Unspecified (2.0%)
Sikh (1.7%)

Largest City:

Mumbai (12,442,373)

Other Cities:

New Delhi (11,034,555)
Bengaluru (8,443,675)
Chennai (7,088,000)
Hyderabad (6,731,790)
Ahmedabad (5,577,940)



Southern Asia

Bodies of Water:

Arabian Sea (West)
Bay of Bengal (East)
Indian Ocean (South)

Total Area:

3,287,263 km2 (90.4% land, 9.6% water)

Total Land:

13,888 km

Total Coastline:

7,000 km


Temperate in the north
Tropical monsoon in the south


Plateau in the south
Flat to rolling plains in the north
Western deserts
Mountains to the north and east

Highest Point

Kanchenjunga (8,598 m)

Lowest Point

Sea Level

Natural Disasters

Severe thunderstorms



Federal Republic

Head of State:

President Ram Nath Kovind

Head of Government:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi

Admin. Divisions

29 States
7 Union territories


15 August 1947 (from the United Kingdom)

Nat'l Symbol:

Lion Capital of Ashoka

Nat'l Anthem:

Jana Gana Mana


GDP Per Capita

$6,200 (USD)


₹ (Rupee)

Exchange Rate

$1 (USD) = ₹ (Rupee)70.26


Internet Code


Telephone Code


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Cultural Notes

When entering somebody’s house in India, it is imperative that you remove all footwear.
Using your left hand, especially when eating, is frowned upon, as it is custom to use your left hand when completing sanitary tasks.
To greet or welcome somebody, clasp the palms of both hands together.
Unless the person explicitly shakes their head in disagreement or adamantly replies negatively with some sort of head movement, assume all other head movements to mean that the person is following or agreeing with what you are saying, as many of these head movements can be very ambiguous to the outsider.
Gifts are not expected until a relationship develops. Acceptable gifts include chocolates, flowers that are not white, and items from your home country.
Never refuse food but do not feel obliged to finish your plate. If absolutely necessary, ask for smaller portions.
When you negotiate, start with small talk first. Negotiations tend to be slow and done by the most senior person. Expect a lot of uncertainty while negotiating.

Sources (Majority of information) (City population data)
Wolfram|Alpha (Currency exchange data)
Information accurate to best of ability as of 8 November 2016
1India's census does not take into account ethnicity. The numbers listed are approximations from 2000.