Official English Name: Republic of India
Official Local Name(s): भारत गणराज्य
Note: 21 other official local names exist; Hindi is considered a national language
Common English Name: India
Capital: New Delhi

Learn everything you need to know about India in under 2 minutes!

Official Language(s)

English, Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Sanskrit
Secondary Languages: Maithili, Konkani, Tulu

Resources

Coal, Iron ore, Manganese, Mica, Bauxite, Rare earth elements, Titanium ore, Chromite, Natural gas, Diamonds, Petroleum, Limestone, Arable land

Neighbors

Pakistan (Northwest), China (Northeast), Nepal (North), Bhutan (North), Myanmar (East), Bangladesh (South)

Ethnic groups

Indo-Aryan (72%), Dravidian (25%), Mongoloid/Other (3%)

People

Est. Population:

1,296,834,042

Demonym:

Indian

Religions:

Hindu (79.8%)
Muslim (14.2%)
Christian (2.3%)
Other/Unspecified (2.0%)
Sikh (1.7%)

Largest City:

Mumbai (12,442,373)

Other Cities:

New Delhi (11,034,555)
Bengaluru (8,443,675)
Chennai (7,088,000)
Hyderabad (6,731,790)
Ahmedabad (5,577,940)

Geography

Region:

Southern Asia

Bodies of Water:

Arabian Sea (West)
Bay of Bengal (East)
Indian Ocean (South)

Total Area:

3,287,263 km2 (90.4% land, 9.6% water)

Total Land:

13,888 km

Total Coastline:

7,000 km

Climate

Temperate in the north
Tropical monsoon in the south

Terrain:

Plateau in the south
Flat to rolling plains in the north
Western deserts
Mountains to the north and east

Highest Point

Kanchenjunga (8,598 m)

Lowest Point

Sea Level

Natural Disasters

Flooding
Droughts
Severe thunderstorms
Earthquakes

Government

Type:

Federal Republic

Heads of State:

President Ram Nath Kovind

Head of Government:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi

Admin. Divisions

29 States
7 Union territories

Independence:

15 August 1947 (from the United Kingdom)

Nat'l Symbol:

Lion Capital of Ashoka

Nat'l Anthem:

Jana Gana Mana

Economy

GDP Per Capita

$6,200 (USD)

Currency

₹ (Rupee)

Exchange Rate

$1 (USD) = ₹ (Rupee)70.26

Communication

Internet Code

.in

Telephone Code

+91

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Cultural Notes

When entering somebody’s house in India, it is imperative that you remove all footwear.
Using your left hand, especially when eating, is frowned upon, as it is custom to use your left hand when completing sanitary tasks.
To greet or welcome somebody, clasp the palms of both hands together.
Unless the person explicitly shakes their head in disagreement or adamantly replies negatively with some sort of head movement, assume all other head movements to mean that the person is following or agreeing with what you are saying, as many of these head movements can be very ambiguous to the outsider.
Gifts are not expected until a relationship develops. Acceptable gifts include chocolates, flowers that are not white, and items from your home country.
Never refuse food but do not feel obliged to finish your plate. If absolutely necessary, ask for smaller portions.
When you negotiate, start with small talk first. Negotiations tend to be slow and done by the most senior person. Expect a lot of uncertainty while negotiating.

Sources

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html (Majority of information)
http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/India2/Table_2_PR_Cities_1Lakh_and_Above.pdf (City population data)
Wolfram|Alpha (Currency exchange data)
Information accurate to best of ability as of 8 November 2016
1India's census does not take into account ethnicity. The numbers listed are approximations from 2000.